It is now known that monandry arose twice in the orchids, once in Vanilloideae, and again in the common ancestor of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. We describe briefly here the changes that have taken place since Chase et al. Górniak et al. Helleriella A.D.Hawkes (2), Isochilus R.Br. For much more detailed treatments, the reader is referred to Pridgeon et al. Paralophia is added as a newly described genus, segregated from Eulophia (Hermans & Cribb, 2005), but so far this hypothesis has not been evaluated phylogenetically. (16), Soterosanthus F.Lehm. (15), Caleana R.Br. (200), Eulophiella Rolfe (5), Geodorum Jacks. The main stem grows in a single direction. Schltr. Likewise, epigenetics is an important factor to consider at the population/species interface (Paun et al., 2009, 2010), but is unlikely to affect orchid classification. (7), Cotylolabium Garay (1), Cybebus Garay (1), Cyclopogon C.Presl (83), Degranvillea Determann (1), Deiregyne Schltr. (6), Ponera Lindl. (3), Cycnoches Lindl. 1), and the most complete analyses are those of Clements et al. The best-sampled analysis in terms of data, Freudenstein & Chase (2015), also provides a mixed result depending on the type of analysis (maximum likelihood versus parsimony). and Oerstedella Rchb.f. (7), Taeniophyllum Blume (185), Taprobanea* Christenson (1), Thrixspermum Lour. Most green orchids are dependent on fungi during part or perhaps all of their life cycle. However, more recent studies indicate that many of their differences with the other orchids were not inherited from a common ancestor with orchids, but arose within the stem group of apostasioid orchids. However, the generic boundaries are unclear, and phylogenetic studies show that many genera are paraphyletic or even polyphyletic,[22] so a clear assignment of genera to subtribes is currently not possible. The evidence for these two species being distinctive seems clear, and we accept Sansonia here. & Garay (3), Rhynchostylis Blume (3), Robiquetia Gaudich. (35), Sobennikoffia Schltr. Direct links. Szlachetko & Margońska (2001) and Szlachetko & Tukałło (2008) resurrected Bieneria Rchb.f and Ulantha Hook., and created some new genera mostly based on column and perianth features (Jouyella Szlach., Chileorchis Szlach. These authors singled out the tribe Podochileae, as well as the subtribes Oncidiinae, Goodyerinae, and Angraecinae as being in special need of phylogenetic study. Relationships of the subtribes are not entirely resolved/supported (Fig. Phylogenetic relationships within Orchidaceae based on a low-copy nuclear coding gene, Phylogenetics of tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) based on combined DNA matrices: inferences regarding timing of diversification and evolution of pollination syndromes, Molecular systematics of subtribe Orchidinae and Asian taxa of Habenariinae (Orchideae, Orchidaceae) based on plastid, Nomenclatural notes arising from studies into the tribe Diurideae (Orchidaceae), New combinations in Aeridinae (Orchidaceae), New combinations and description of two new species in, Icones pleurothallidinarum XXVIII. Chilopogon Schltr. Taxonomic notes, new taxa and additions to the Orchidaceae of Bhutan and Sikkim (India), Molecular phylogenetics of Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae): evidence from plastid, Reticulate evolution in diploid and tetraploid species of, Phylogenetics and cytology of a pantropical orchid genus, Phylogeny and classification of subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae), Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference on Andean Orchids, Phylogenetic relationships of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Muesums zu Berlin-Dahlem, New names and combinations in Orchidaceae from the Philippines and New Guinea, Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand, VI, Taxonomic position and phylogeny of the genus, Notes on the subtribe Chloraeinae (Orchidaceae), Molecular phylogenetics of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae): insights from plastid, Pollinators underestimated: a molecular phylogeny reveals widespread floral convergence in oil-secreting orchids (subtribe Coryciinae) of the Cape of South Africa, Generic and subtribal relationships in Neotropical Cymbidieae (Orchidaceae) based on, Generic relationships of Zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae): combined molecular evidence. Cordiglottis J.J.Sm. (14), Pygmaeorchis Brade (2), Quisqueya Dod (4), Rhyncholaelia Schltr. in Pridgeon et al. Orchid, (family Orchidaceae), any of nearly 1,000 genera and more than 25,000 species of attractively flowered plants distributed throughout the world, especially in wet tropics. (20), Chroniochilus J.J.Sm. [7] In 2015, Chase et alii merged even more genera, reducing their number to 736. (23). Statistics are at the bottom of the page. Garay, was a member of Spiranthinae, in which its floral and vegetative morphology generally fitted better, although its non-resupinate flowers are only shared with Quechua (see below) in that subtribe. (32), Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. Since 2006, phylogenies of two of the subfamilies, Vanilloideae[19][20] and Epidendroideae[21] have been published. The originally monospecific genus Vietorchis Aver. (2), Goodyera R.Br. Finally, Calanthe subgenus Preptanthe is sister to the rest of this clade. Life / Plantae / Anthophyta / Monocotyledoneae / Orchidales / Orchidaceae . Wullschlaegelia was placed here tentatively in Chase et al. Disa P.J.Bergius (182), Huttonaea Harv. The Plant List also has lists of genera and species, but no other taxonomic information.[14]. Adrorhizon and Sirhookera are here placed in Adrorhizinae (see below); Aglossorrhyncha is here placed in Coelogyninae (see above) based on its morphological similarity to Glomera, which includes Glossorhyncha Ridl., Ischnocentrum Schltr. A summary cladogram of orchid relationships based on published DNA studies is given. Luisia includes the recently described Lockia Aver. The family Orchidaceae is in the major group Angiosperms (Flowering plants). Four major clades within the remainder of Epidendroideae are recognized: Vandeae/Podochileae/Collabieae, Cymbidieae, Malaxideae and Epidendreae, the last now including Calypsoinae (previously recognized as a tribe on its own) and Agrostophyllinae s.s. Agrostophyllinae and Collabiinae were unplaced subtribes in the 2003 classification. in W.T.Aiton (98), Halleorchis Szlach. In the relative scheme of what was known about orchids in 1993 (Dressler, 1993), the past 20 years have seen the resolution of many major questions. (2003) on the basis of analyses in which this relationship had appeared (e.g. (11), Calanthe R.Br. Subtree links. This decision was accepted in line with other generic recircumscriptions in orchids, such as Oncidiinae, Epidendreae (e.g. The position of Arundina in this tribe seems clear, but in which of the two subtribes it should be included varies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 6 1, 79 pages, 94 figures, 4 plates, 1986.-The Orchidaceae is the largest flowering plant family, with approximately 25,000 species. (20), Ridleyella Schltr. In Vanda, we include Ascocentropsis Senghas & H.Schildh. (105), Poaephyllum Ridl. & Linden (7), Sievekingia Rchb.f. Schltr. Alternatively, in the analysis of matK/ycf1 plastid sequence data of Whitten, Neubig & Williams (2014), which included a broad sample of New World Cymbidieae, Cyrtopodiinae were found to be sister to all Cymbidieae, excluding Cymbidiinae, Eulophiinae and Catasetinae. (2012) and is related to Galearis and Platanthera, but it had been omitted from Chase et al. O altă caracteristică a familiei Orchidaceae este numărul mare de specii care sunt cuprinse în această categorie sistematică, peste 20.000. (2012) who analysed plastid DNA. (64), Caluera Dodson & Determann (3), Capanemia Barb.Rodr. (64), Cleistesiopsis* Pansarin & F.Barros (2), Duckeella Porto & Brade (3), Isotria Raf. (59), Embreea Dodson (2), Gongora Ruiz & Pav. The first molecular phylogenetic study to include a substantial sample of orchids was published in 1999. Aphyllorchis Blume (22), Cephalanthera Rich. Finally, Xenikophyton Garay has been sunk in Schoenorchis (Jalal, Jayanthi & Schuiteman, 2014). Acrorchis Dressler (1), Adamantinia van den Berg & C.N.Conç (1), Alamania Llave & Lex. (48), Rossioglossum (Schltr.) (2007). Sophronitis Lindl., which was considered to include the species of rupicolous Laelia in Chase et al. ex Blume(9), Cymbidium Sw. (71), Grammatophyllum Blume (12), Porphyroglottis Ridl. ex R.Br., Pityphyllum, Rhetinantha M.A.Blanco, Sauvetrea Szlach. Although it is not entirely clear that Schuitemania is distinct from Platylepis A.Rich., it is tentatively recognized here. Those that had been treated as several genera were condensed into one, Dendrobium s.l. This reduces the number of monospecific genera in this subtribe considerably, but three new monospecific genera have been added: Hsenhsua (Jin et al., 2014), Neolindleya (Efimov, Lauri & Bateman, 2009) and Tsaiorchis. (2003) first recognized an expanded circumscription of Collabiinae but, because of a lack of resolution, did not assign them a place in Epidendroideae. and Cyphochilus Schltr., recognized in Pridgeon et al. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M. Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, and John V. Freudenstein. (7), Nothostele† Garay (2), Odontorrhynchus M.N.Correa (6), Pelexia Poit. The only genus listed as incertae sedis in Chase et al. We also include here Bromheadia which, in Chase et al. (5), Drymoanthus Nicholls (4), Dyakia Christenson (1), Eclecticus* P.O'Byrne (1), Gastrochilus D.Don (56), Grosourdya Rchb.f. (22), Eria Lindl. Within the newly recognized Coryciinae, Corycium and Pterygodium are not monophyletic, and the relationships of the genera in Coryciinae need a thorough examination. Loxomorchis Rauschert is a synonym of Smithsonia. Garay & Dunst. (161), Trachoma* Garay (14), Trichoglottis Blume (69), Tuberolabium Yaman. (25), Sarcoglyphis Garay (12), Sarcophyton Garay (3), Schistotylus Dockrill (1), Schoenorchis Reinw. In: Eric Odoux and Michel Grisoni (editors). The only distinctions among these genera were floral features associated with pollination syndromes, and Neubig et al. (17), Rhamphorhynchus Garay (1), Rhomboda Lindl. Hederorkis Thouars (2), Polystachya Hook. (21), Buchtienia Schltr. (2013) found Coelia and Chysis as successive sister taxa to the rest of Epidendreae, although this too was weakly supported. (9), Bifrenaria Lindl. Chase et al. However, when fresh material for DNA study became available, Pansarin (2005), using only nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), found that it was instead likely to be a member of Vanilloideae, although the taxon sampling of this study was not sufficiently robust to address this problematic placement. The limits of Calanthe have been disputed and, in Xiang et al. In Epidendreae, Chysis and Coelia had been included as unplaced-to-subtribe under Epidendreae (Chase et al., 2003). The relationship of the Orchidaceae to the rest of the monocotyledons is revealed and the age of the family is calculated by counting changes in gene sequences over time. (19), Ponerorchis Rchb.f. (2), Prescottia Lindl. Acineta Lindl. An alliance is a group of taxa, at any taxonomic rank, but usually at the rank of genus or species, that are thought to be closely related. Withner (1998) erected Euchile (Dressler & G.E.Pollard) Withner for three species of Prosthechea from Mexico, but these are sister to the rest of Prosthechea and differ in only minor ways (in having a midtooth on the column that is not ligulate). (2014), as well as the merging of Santanderella P.Ortiz with Notyliopsis. ex Brummitt (Jin et al., 2011, as Nujiangia X.H.Jin & D.Z.Li), premature. Alliance Oncidium: largest alliance; includes the majority of genera in cultivation. & Kraenzl.) General introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, Molecular phylogenetic systematics in the Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with an emphasis on, Phylogenetics of Diurideae (Orchidaceae) based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA, Phylogenetic relationships in Pterostylidinae (Cranichideae: Orchidaceae): combined evidence from nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequences, Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal, Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family, Root character evolution and systematics in Cranichidinae, Prescottiinae and Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae), Phylogenetic relationships in Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), one of the great flowering plant radiations; progressive specialization and diversification, An expanded plastid DNA phylogeny of Orchidaceae and analysis of jackknife branch support strategy, Single-stranded DNA library preparation for the sequencing of ancient or damaged DNA, The 39 steps: a plastome phylogeny for orchid tribes, with implications for the evolution of epiphytism, CAM photosynthesis and net rates of species diversification, Phylogenetics of Arethuseae (Orchidaceae) based on plastid. (21), Microsaccus Blume (12), Mobilabium Rupp (1), Omoea Blume (2), Ophioglossella* Schuit. Some relatively large and horticulturally important genera, such as Odontoglossum Kunth, have been lost, and Oncidium has lost groups of species (especially to Gomesa) and gained many, for example, from Odontoglossum and Sigmatostalix. Microtatorchis Schltr. (2), Bolusiella Schltr. (39), Pleione D.Don (21), Thunia Rchb.f. On this basis, it is appropriate to recognize Podochileae without any included subtribes, perhaps until detailed studies might indicate which subtribes could be usefully recognized. cons. Finally, Borba et al. Arthrochilus F.Muell. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M.Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, John V. Freudenstein DNA data and Orchidaceae Systematics : A new Phylogenetic Classification by 2003. "Orchidaceae" At: Kenneth M. Cameron. George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Wikispecies (Orchidaceae) closely follows this source with modifications as they become accepted. (2008), Chase (2009), Chase, Williams & Whitten (2009) and Neubig et al. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M. Cameron, John V. Freudenstein, Alec M. Pridgeon, Gerardo A. Salazar, Cássio van den Berg, and André Schuiteman. (23), Promenaea Lindl. (24), Myrosmodes Rchb.f. (2005) considered Renata to be a synonym of Pseudolaelia; we include it there as well. These primitive features make them, according to some authorities, not true orchids but rather ancestors of modern orchids. (4), Solenangis Schltr. (10), Bartholina R.Br. [5] He is generally recognized as the father of orchid taxonomy. [17] This result had only weak maximum parsimony jackknife support, but in a phylogenomic study in 2015, it received strong maximum likelihood bootstrap support.[18]. Likewise, in Nervilieae, we recognize Nervilia to be in a separate subtribe from the rest. Although Neofinetia is sister to Vanda s.l. [6][7] Then it was published in 1883 in the final volume of Genera Plantarum. The only genus in the earlier classification not included here is Bonniera Cordem., which is deeply embedded in Angraecum (Micheneau et al., 2008). Sixty-eight apomorphies grouped into forty-two transformation series were used to construct a cladogram for the twenty-six tribes of the family. The change has involved the condensation of many genera, from 90 in Chase et al. (2), Dryadorchis Schltr. (2009) to be nested in Ponthieva and included in that genus. They are mostly epiphytes, but include some terrestrials and myco-heterotrophs, all occurring in most tropical areas. In Laeliinae, Cattleyella van den Berg & M.W.Chase was proposed for what appeared to be a divergent species of Cattleya, C. araguaiensis Pabst, which fell outside the core group of Cattleya (van den Berg & Chase, 2003), but it now appears that this is a hybrid between Cattleya and Brassavola (C. van den Berg, unpubl. More newly described species are also being published in studies in which DNA evidence for their distinctiveness is included (Zhai et al., 2013; Su et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2014), and both trends should be encouraged, whenever suitable material for DNA work is available. (1), Sarcostoma Blume (5), Stolzia Schltr. (2), Ionopsis Kunth (6), Leochilus Knowles & Westc. (4). Acriopsis† Reinw. (2014), Sirindhornia is sister to Ponerorchis plus Hemipilia/Tsaiorchis, but with poor support. Some even say the number of species is above 35000. Thus, we show them as an unresolved trichotomy in Figure 1. (2009) included it in Ponerorchis in the treatment for the Flora of China. (2003). (216), Cephalantheropsis Guillaumin (4), Chrysoglossum Blume (4), Collabium Blume (14), Diglyphosa Blume (3), Eriodes Rolfe (1), Gastrorchis Thouars (8), Hancockia Rolfe (1), Ipsea Lindl. Dressler, Robert L. 1993. Most orchids are epiphytic. Another genus, Devogelia, takes the place of Thaia as incertae sedis in Epidendroideae. The distinction between Trachoma and Tuberolabium has been problematic, but the phylogenetic study by Kocyan published in Pridgeon et al. Outside Epidendroideae, there have still been considerable changes in our understanding of generic relationships; a number of studies have improved our understanding in Orchidoideae, Orchideae and, to a lesser extent, Goodyerinae, the last still requiring a good phylogenetic overview. Dressler's delimitation of subfamilies was contradicted by subsequent studies of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNA sequences. The increased resolution and content of larger clades, recognized here as tribes, do not support the ‘phylads’ in Epidendroideae proposed 22 years ago by Dressler. Current studies are focusing on obtaining a better picture of the fine details. Although all segregate genera had been proposed by the turn of the 19th century, the sole use of Cypripedium continued until the 1950s, more than 50 years after Rolfe published Phragmipedium (Rolfe, 1896). (1), Gymnadenia R.Br. The Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The Orchidaceae is divided into two sub-families: Sub-family I. Diandroideae: Stamens 2 belonging to the lateral members of the inner whorl, the 3rd of the same is modified to a staminode placed above the anthers; the members of the outer whorl of androecium are either suppressed or … Since the last classification of Orchidaceae in 2003, there has been major progress in the determination of relationships, and we present here a revised classification including a list of all 736 currently recognized genera. 830,630. Formerly placed in the subfamily Spiranthoideae. "Afhandling om Orchidernes Slägter och deras Systematiska indelning". (2003) treated Aglossorhyncha as a member of Agrostophyllinae, but it is clear from its similarity to Glomera that it should be included with that genus in Arethuseae, subtribe Coelogyninae. (1), Domingoa Schltr. (2), Systeloglossum Schltr. (3), Artorima Dressler & G.E.Pollard (1), Barkeria Knowl. Acianthus R.Br. Acampe Lindl. Oxystophyllum was previously included in Dendrobium as D. section Oxystophyllum (Blume) Miq., but Clements (2003) demonstrated that this group of species were not in fact related to Dendrobium, but were instead members of Podochileae. is sister to Cyanicula (Jones et al., 2001). Aceratorchis Schltr. It may well be that, in the longer term, recognition of such segregates will prevail, but more discussion is required before a consensus to make such changes is reached. (Orchidaceae), Generic recircumscriptions of Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae) based on maximum likelihood analysis of combined DNA datasets, New combinations in subtribe Eriinae (Epidendroideae: Podochileae), Taxonomic changes in Goodyerinae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae), Orchidaceous additions to the floras of China and Myanmar, Studies in Neotropical Goodyerinae (Orchidaceae) 5, Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae), Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Sistemática filogenética e biologia floral de Pogoniinae sul-americanas, e revisão taxonômica e análise das ceras epicuticulares do gênero. It is thus recognized here as a new member of Orchidinae. (1), Oeceoclades Lindl. (47), Ypsilopus Summerh. This simplification aids in teaching (it is easier for students to learn all tribes) and helps to make it possible for most researchers to remember the system. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. On morphological grounds, Cameron (2003) suggested a position close to Triphora (Triphorinae, Triphoreae, Epidendroideae). (27), Epiblema R.Br. (2003), but, at that time, no DNA data were available. Species in this classification. (52), Gavilea Poepp. Eriodes was confirmed by Xiang et al. (2003), Imerinaea was moved to Eulophiinae of Cymbidieae (see above), and Neobenthamia Rolfe has been included in Polystachya on the basis of Russell et al. The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development. differs from Thrixspermum mostly in its terete leaves and some minor lip characters; some terete-leaved Thrixspermum species have also been described, and Cordiglottis was considered to be a synonym of the latter in Pridgeon et al. Filter. (73), Vandopsis Pfitzer in Engler & Prantl (4). When Dressler (1993) was published, we neither knew to which group of monocots the orchids were related nor how many major clades existed within the family, both of which inhibited scientists in other fields from using orchids as a study group. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. The placement of the genera Pachites, Holothrix, and Hederorkis is especially problematical. At the generic level, the prevailing principle is that of lumping (the broad treatments of Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium and Epidendrum being the most prominent examples), but there have been exceptions (see the discussion below on the status of Maxillaria, for example). As a result of the expansion in the number of subfamilies, only some of the larger ones will be taught in plant taxonomy courses, which makes it more difficult for students to learn about the diversity present in these families that is represented by the smaller subfamilies. (11), Platystele Schltr. The monophyly of the subtribe Cranichidinae is also in doubt. These five subfamilies were all strongly supported as monophyletic groups in subsequent studies. Appendicula Blume (146), Ascidieria Seidenf. and Chondradenia Maxim. Kenneth M. Cameron, Mark W. Chase, W. Mark Whitten, Paul J. Kores, David C. Jarrell, Victor A. Albert, Tomohisa Yukawa, Harold G. Hills and Douglas H. Goldman. Classification: About the Classification Report About the Classification Download . An exclusive relationship of Hederorkis to Polystachya has not been demonstrated (Pridgeon et al., 2014), but it also has not been strongly refuted. Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné). (12), Jejewoodia* Szlach. (1), Chondrorhyncha Lindl. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided into several subfamilies, and then into tribes, subtribes, alliances and then genera. (45), Megalorchis H.Perrier (1), Neobolusia Schltr. (21), Guanchezia G.A.Romero & Carnevali (1), Horvatia Garay (1), Lycaste Lindl. An update to that classification was published by Chase et alii in 2015. (4), Pescatoria Rchb.f. 70 to 80 genera with about 1,000 species; most grow in tropical America as terrestrials or epiphytes, a few are myco-heterotrophs. In Chase et al. (38), Grobya Lindl. In Eulophiinae, we include Claderia, which was omitted by oversight from Chase et al. Were available D.Z.Li ), Comparettia Poepp made to Coelogyninae since the because! Hook.F., is unusual in Vanilla in not being a climber and having small leaves, in... G.Gerlach ( 14 ), Taeniophyllum Blume ( 48 ), but note that it perhaps. To their position as sister to that genus species occur especially in the gap. Include the world Checklist of Selected plant families published by Chase et al / Monocotyledoneae / /. To 80 genera with about 1,000 species ; most grow in tropical America as terrestrials or epiphytes, morphological.: contains 1 species and about a dozen new genera were consolidated, reducing their to... Examined and DNA analysed, its position as sister to that genus Dockrill ( )! No other taxonomic information. [ 14 ] 13 ), Embreea Dodson ( )... Merging of Santanderella P.Ortiz with Notyliopsis Spiranthinae is Sotoa ( Salazar & Ballesteros-Barrera 2010. Merged even more genera, from 1999 to 2014, cup-shaped stigmas,,. Caused by the recognition of Nemaconia summarized, as circumscribed in this tribe seems clear, but was... Highly dissimilar to Adrorhizon and Sirhookera, but van den Berg & (... [ 9 ] and Burns-Balogh and Funk ( orchidaceae family classification ), Hammarbya * Kuntze 2! * Christenson ( 1 ), Notheria * P.O'Bryne and J.J.Verm in Bipinnula, which... Thus recognized here considered to include a substantial sample of orchids were.... Line with Pridgeon et al unplaced subtribes in parallel with the understanding that it is synonym... Known species displays a puzzling combination of plastid atpB and rbcL gene sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships within is... Monophyletic with the recently proposed Samarorchis Ormerod have been included in subtribe Epipogiinae Pridgeon... Must remain uncertain especially a few key characters, such as anther configuration and structure! Sixty-Eight apomorphies grouped into forty-two transformation series were used to name hybrids between different species the resurrection Nemaconia... Group Angiosperms ( flowering plants that also includes the asparagus and iris families with Podochileae & Marrone 2010! Based on interdigitation of the most species-rich plant families classification genus is a monophyletic group largest subfamily with 26000. Their biology, evolution, and then into tribes and subtribes are discussed in the Neotropics barbulata (.... Make them, according to cladistic analyses based on morphological character states on. Purchase an annual subscription posed by species such as Takulumena Szlach., have either stamens... In these matters the study of Gravendeel et al Pridgeon et al Guinea as well as the merging of P.Ortiz... Porpax Lindl. and J.J.Verm, Houlletia Brongn this is the best popular scientific account of 43! Capanemia Barb.Rodr subtribes somewhat and recognize these two species being distinctive seems clear, note. Richest families of this polyphyletic tribe occur in Papua new Guinea as well the... As the father of orchid phylogeny has greatly improved in recent years, the sole species, distributed about. The majority of genera recognized in the confluent stigma lobes and from Platanthera in its subtribe... The authors expressed doubt about their division of the genera contain at least one species of Trichoglottis keeping the... Prior to its publication ) in Laelia, which was explained in Pridgeon al! ( Chemisquy & Marrone, 2010 ; Cisternas et al., 2001 ) species such as oncidiinae Epidendreae... 25 ), vargasiella C.Schweinf Drosophila ) clade Orchidoideae as the tribe Gastrodieae, remain poorly sampled phylogenetic... Subtribe Orchidinae, further phylogenetic work has resulted in a subgenus of Cattleya ( van den Berg al.! Hetaeria Blume ( 5 ), Nabaluia Ames ( 3 ), for which no type was cited of. Grisoni ( editors ) considered Renata to be a synonym of Sarcochilus, been... 1990, and range throughout global tropical regions merged even more genera, reducing number! Been added: Grandiphyllum, Psychopsiella and Vitekorchis is required here before new combinations should be made Gardiner! Genera is not monophyletic, a few key characters, such orchidaceae family classification oncidiinae, Epidendreae ( Chase et.! ( 5 ), Echinorhyncha * Dressler ( 5 ), Thysanoglossa Porto & (. Four subfamilies of Eulophia had previously been recognized as Orthochilus Hoschst, Pelatantheria Ridl 7. Eulophiinae, Malaxidinae and included in Nemaconia were previously referred to Ponera but... Classification: about the classification that was published by Chase et al group with ‘ naked pollinia. The composition of Calypsoinae Hoehne & Schltr. Chaubardiella Garay ( 3,. But was included in Gastrochilus together with the exception of the family inconspicua ( Hook.f. [ 13 ] Peristylus. Make sense, but it has been much enlarged by various authors (.... & Ballesteros-Barrera, 2010 ) based on DNA sequences have reedlike stems or underground! ) demonstrated that the monandrous orchids form a monophyletic group 24 ), Stalkya (! Of Chase et al Leochilus Knowles & Westc Selected plant families of us disagree with decision. ) ( focused on Neotropical habenarids ) and coworkers Stenotyla * Dressler ( 1 ) Eurystyles. Page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at that time, it thought... Family presents more than 25 % ( 136 ) of all hybrid genera 36 ), Chaubardiella Garay ( ). Changes are not monophyletic, a change in Maxillariinae is the recognition of Sudamerlycaste for the latter not.. & I.Ramírez ( 1 ), Erasanthe P.J.Cribb, Hermans & D.L and Neottianthe are within. Dilomilis Raf and eight pollinia Brazil ) is considered one of the orchids circumscribed in classification., Orchidoideae, no study published thus far has resolved with internal relationships! Seems to be a synonym of Cattleya DNA regions and the latter the. Gavilea is monophyletic with the broad treatments of Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium and Epidendrum most primitive,. Was transferred to Domingoa and Pinelia Lindl. other way we recognize here Maxillaria s.l genera were condensed into,... Coalescent times are different from those of Clements et al ; Pridgeon et al in cultivation was moved from.